Historian Richard L. Bushman, responding to accusations that the Book of Mormon contains "evidence of nineteenth-century American political culture," concluded that in fact "most of the principles traditionally associated with the American Constitution are slighted or disregarded altogether" in the book. "So many of the powerful intellectual influences operating on Joseph Smith failed to touch the Book of Mormon."This raises a fundamental question for critics of the Book of Mormon: where did it and its ideas come from? Most critics say Joseph made it up, just drawing ideas from his environment (and the vast Joseph Smith Frontier Library, of course). But if that's so, then why is the political culture of the Book of Mormon so unlike anything in Joseph's day - yet so filled with ancient Mesoamerican elements?
For example, Bushman noted that patriotic orations and writings in Joseph's time depicted the American Revolution as "a struggle of heroes against oppressors, a brave people versus a tyrant king." The Book of Mormon, on the other hand, consistently describes groups of people being delivered from bondage not through heroic resistance or confrontation but by flight into the wilderness facilitated by the power of God. Whereas 1820s patriotic rhetoric portrayed an enlightened people overthrowing wicked monarchs, Book of Mormon peoples generally clamor for a king; and when the monarchy is abandoned, it is a king (Mosiah2) who instigates the change. Bushman also argued that a careful reading of the Book of Mormon reveals that its seemingly democratic elements bear little resemblance to American ideals: elections are rare, the separation of powers does not exist, there is no written constitution, the concept of "no taxation without representation" is absent, and hereditary succession prevails, even among the "judges."
One of the heroes of the American Revolution is Patrick Henry, revered for the stirring declaration "Give me liberty, or give me death!" The Book of Mormon, however, turns this sentiment on its ear. When the people of King Limhi are threatened by a much stronger Lamanite army, Gideon, the king's captain, counsels, "Let us pacify the king [of the Lamanites] . . . ; for it is better that we should be in bondage than that we should lose our lives" (Mosiah 20:22). King Limhi apparently agrees that there are worse things than bondage, for later he tells Ammon that "it is better that we be slaves to the Nephites than to pay tribute to the king of the Lamanites" (Mosiah 7:15). . . .
Thursday, March 10, 2005
When Richard Bushman was preparing for a speech during the 1976 celebrations of the bicentennial of American independence, he expected that it would be easy to find a few good quotes from the Book of Mormon that resonated with the principles in our Constitution. Instead, he was perplexed to see that when one looks beyond a few superficial issues, the political attitudes and structures in the Book of Mormon are quite different from what we have inherited in this country. Over at FARMS, Ross Geddes discusses this point in his short article, "Patrick Henry, Gideon, and the Book of Mormon." Here is an excerpt:
Posted by Jeff Lindsay at 8:06 PM