Discussions of Mormons and Mormon life, Book of Mormon issues and evidences, and other Latter-day Saint (LDS) topics.

Sunday, October 07, 2012

Endless or Temporary Punishment: A Deceptive God?

For many of us Latter-day Saints, Section 19 of the Doctrine and Covenants is viewed as a beautiful passage of Mormon scripture that deepens our appreciation of God’s mercy and grace. But for some, it’s a stumbling block, one that has raised serious doubts about God, or at least “the God of Mormonism.” Today I’d like to address the problematic side of Section 19 in hopes of helping some who struggle with it.

This section discusses repentance and the danger of punishment, even hell, for those who do not accept the grace made possible by the Atonement of Jesus Christ on conditions of repentance. However, we learn that hell, though an eternal and endless institution in God’s eternal and endless work is not endured endlessly for those who are sent there. Here are some relevant verses (read the whole section at LDS.org):

4 And surely every man must repent or suffer, for I, God, am endless.
5 Wherefore, I revoke not the judgments which I shall pass, but woes shall go forth, weeping, wailing and gnashing of teeth, yea, to those who are found on my left hand.
6 Nevertheless, it is not written that there shall be no end to this torment, but it is written endless torment.
7 Again, it is written eternal damnation; wherefore it is more express than other scriptures, that it might work upon the hearts of the children of men, altogether for my name’s glory….
10 For, behold, the mystery of godliness, how great is it! For, behold, I am endless, and the punishment which is given from my hand is endless punishment, for Endless is my name. Wherefore–
11 Eternal punishment is God’s punishment.
12 Endless punishment is God’s punishment.

Many Christians over the centuries have struggled with the concept of hell and wondered why God would create endless torment for those who didn’t find their way to Christianity. Part of  the problem is the injustice of condemning millions who simply had no chance to learn of Christ and become baptized Christians. That problem, of course, is elegantly and beautifully resolved in the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ when one understands the divine concept of baptism for the dead and the preaching of the Gospel to the dead so that all will have a fair chance to hear and accept the Gospel of Christ. But another part of the problem is this: Why endless torment for those who sin? Mercifully, we learn in Section 19 that suffering of hell is temporary. It is an endless and eternal institution, but one’s passage through hell is temporary. As I understand it, it lasts long enough for one to fully pay for one’s sins, but then, as we read in Section 76, even those who sinned and refused to repent will be released from hell and enter into a decent place, though still cut off from the full glory of God that is reserved for those who loved Him and accepted the grace offered through the covenants of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

While some of us Latter-day Saints read Section 19 and want to rejoice over the mercy shown even toward those deserving of hell, others are troubled by the tactic God has taken. By using words like endless and eternal to describe a temporary hell, isn’t God deliberately deceptive? Doesn’t He admit to playing deceptive mind games in saying “it is written eternal damnation . . . that it might work upon the hearts of the children of men”? If our God isn’t an honest God, can we really trust Him? Does He even exist?

The questions are fair and worth discussing. Unfortunately, this line of reasoning led one acquaintance of mine out of the Church--apparently being the “last straw” or the final catalyst for abandoning faith. I’m writing this post today for her and anyone else struggling with God’s integrity due to this issue. I will share some thoughts that I hope will help, though may not change anyone’s mind.  The points I wish to make are that 1) the technical gaps in the basic warnings about eternal torment or endless hellfire may be an appropriate way for a loving parent to simplify complex teachings into a simple message that rebellious kids can grasp (e.g., the pains of hell are very bad, and yes, there are eternal consequences to sin), and 2) long before Section 19 was given, the scriptures already contained hints that the “eternal torment” of hell could be experienced temporarily, as Section 19 indicates.


Parents and Simplified Messaging
When I read Section 19, I do not experience the sense of deliberate deception and lack of integrity from God. I experience the sense of a parent trying to teach rebellious children. Yes, the words used lack technical detail, just as many instructions from a parent are incomplete and even technically inadequate, while adapted for the good of the child.

A big part of parenting is teaching complex things in simple ways. To lead children to the right behaviors and right conclusions, giving the full technical explanation with all the exceptions, theory, qualifiers, etc., is often inadequate. What may be complex often has to be boiled down to a simple concept when people aren’t ready to explore and understand  to understand the full details and all the nuances. The simplified, incomplete guidance parents give to young children on topics ranging from safety, diet, and human reproduction is not because parents are inherently deceptive, but because they love their children and are trying to teach them what they can digest in ways that will help them. The oversimplified explanations may be rife with technical gaps that anyone with an advanced degree could point out. God is a heavenly parent teaching often rebellious kids with highly limited comprehension. Mercifully, at the most basic level, the complex story of the various stages of judgment, punishment, paradise vs. spirit prison, resurrection, etc., becomes something like this: "Don’t mess with sin, and don't stay trapped in sin, because the consequences are very bad and very painful. The consequences are eternal. Forever. You really, really, really don't want to go to hell!”

Yes, the consequences are eternal, for being locked out of God's presence and all that joy is eternal. OK, the direct suffering to pay for one’s sins in hell does not last forever, but being out of God’s presence does, and though that is not hellfire, it is tragic. Technically the intense suffering in the darkness of hell is only temporary, mercifully, and then we live eternally in fairly cool kingdoms that, however, are away from God’s presence, which means eternal loss and separation. Not endlessly in hellfire, but endlessly apart, and even a brief touch of hell is eternal enough if we knew what it was like. Given all that, it makes sense that God, the merciful parent faced, condenses the message for us slow learners to inform and motivate correctly, not to deceive, though the condensed message has some technicalities that advanced learners can object to. For the advanced learners, again mercifully, we have Section 19 and Section 76 and Section 138, and more to give us a more nuanced understanding of the afterlife, though still highly incomplete and perhaps rife with other technical gaps that we will appreciate once we ready to understand more.

This could be a case where the more technically nuanced explanation would get condensed in the minds of men to a message that would ultimately be deceptive by leading men to think hell and punishment are not a big deal and everything will be OK in the end, regardless of what they do. After looking at this again, my conclusion might be that perhaps we need to give God the same kind of break that we hope our kids will give us and understand that the answers given to 5-year-olds might have relatively necessary gaps compared to what we can teach later on. Not because we are deceiving, but because we are parenting and loving.

The scriptures contain other examples where wording seems to convey simplified messages that are technically inadequate, but are perfectly adequate for the purpose intended with the target audience. For example, the Creation story speaks of 7 days, and men have naturally understood this to be short days of 24 hours, when the Hebrew word day can also refer to an epoch in time. We are now learning that the earth is very old and that whatever process it has been through to prepare it for life as we now know it, millions and even billions of years were involved. Why didn’t God give us the technically correct data to begin with? Why not explain the Creation in a more scientifically robust manner? Perhaps because the purpose from the beginning has been to let us know that He is the Creator, and the technical details don’t matter much, at least so far they haven’t. Perhaps that is changing and some future revelation will address the science of the Creation more satisfactorily for those who feel they deserve more details. Patience for now, please.

Temporary Tasting of Eternal Torment: A Consistent Message
The concept of experiencing hell temporarily is not new to Section 19. It is part of the ancient Christian concept of the “harrowing of hell” in which Christ bring deliverance to the dead who once were rebellious but hear and accept the Gospel. This concept is hinted at in 1 Peter 3 and 4, and in the early Christian concept of baptism for the dead, but for details on the pervasive extent of this doctrine, see "The Harrowing of Hell: Salvation for the Dead in Early Christianity" by Roger D. Cook, David L. Paulsen, and Kendel J. Christensen.

Perhaps a more directly relevant issue comes from the story of Alma the Younger in the Book of Mormon. In describing his torment for three days and nights after recognizing that he had been fighting against God, he says that he experienced “everlasting burnings” and “eternal torment.” See Mosiah 27:28, 29 and Alma 36:12:

Mosiah 27:
[28] Nevertheless, after wading through much tribulations, repenting nigh unto death, the Lord in mercy hath seen fit to snatch me out of an everlasting burning, and I am born of God.
[29] My soul hath been redeemed from the gall of bitterness and bonds of iniquity. I was in the darkest abyss; but now I behold the marvelous light of God. My soul was racked with eternal torment; but I am snatched, and my soul is pained no more.
Alma 36:
[12] But I was racked with eternal torment, for my soul was harrowed up to the greatest degree and racked with all my sins.

Everlasting. Eternal. Temporary. Completely consistent with Section 19.

Alma is not playing mind games either nor being deceptive. The torments of hell are from the Eternal One, the Endless One, and are endless and eternal, though temporary.

For further insights on this topic, see a related article at FAIRMormon.org on eternal punishment.

I would appreciate your thoughts and insights on how to better deal with this topic. It does matter for some people and I would like to find better ways to treat the challenges that some face with this topic.


10 comments:

Anonymous said...

Thank you, Jeff. I am the one who contacted you by email with this question, and you have answered it very well. The example of Alma the Younger, in particular, clearly shows that "eternal" and "endless" are used to mean something other than without end. Though I still have many other questions and concerns, I'm impressed that you were able to answer this one, which I've asked many times and never received a real answer until now.

Nicholas Redd said...

Great blog! I look forward to reading more. How's life in China?

Anonymous said...

One thing I've been wondering about: Mitt Romney has been lying so much I just wondered if this is just Romney or is this a Mormon thing? Do Mormon's believe it is ok to lie to non-Mormons?

Anonymous said...

Anonymous,

It is not okay to lie.

Steve

Anonymous said...

One train of thought you might like to consider is that the punishment itself is never-ending, but our tenure in that condition is temporary.
Also, the pain and anguish of our souls, the loss inflicted by that separation may pain us for time without end. Just has we sometimes wish we had chosen differently at times in our lives, causing us mental anguish, we may also feel that way then, even while rejoicing the mercy and goodness of God who consigned us to a state of glory, rather than have us cast off and destroyed forever.

kevinzico said...

This to me reminds me of how we understand line upon line and precept upon precept. In another Doctrine and Covenants section, 76:5. Two types of people are described. Those who fear God, and those who serve Him. Is God deceptive because he is merciful to those who fear Him, and honors those who serve Him? No. In fact, fearing God is the beginning to getting to know Him. Serving Him is the direct result of being blessed by His mercy. To me the explanation is clear, the words "eternal" and "endless" are to help His children to be open to receive His mercy. Discovering that there IS an end to torment is part of God's mercy.

Anonymous said...

To the first anonymous on Mitt Romney: In the context of Jeff's post, it just means that if Romney is elected, you will apparently suffer eternal torment. But buck up, your eternal torment will last no longer than eight years.

Mark Steele

CF said...

Loved the post and have pondered often over this passage of scripture. I consider it another piece of revealed doctrine that has been given to use at this time because we were ready for it. A 3 year old misbehaving doesn't need to be told in detail his punishment, but a 17 year old does and how long that punishment lasts.

Jeff, another point I think relates to this is the question: does hell even exist in LDS doctrine? Other than those very few mortals and the 1/3 who followed Satan who will spend time as Sons of Perdition, what else can be considered Hell?

The 3 degrees of Glory are not considered a "Hell" by any standard. They are called "Glories" for a reason. They are degrees of heaven. Sure, one that cannot stand in the presence of God may be considered "Hell" to those who knew they could have aspired to more, but fell short, but is even the Telestial "Kingdom" such a terrible place to assign it the name of Hell?

Here's another interesting poitn I always love to bring up on this topic. A common misconception among Latter Day Saints is the belief that Outer Darkness is reserved for the Sons of Perdition. This is simply false. "Outer Darkness" is simply another title for "Spirit Prison", the temporary place wicked (or more wicked) spirits will reside between death and the Resurrection. Alma explains this, and it is also written in Doctrine and Covenants 76 (particularly verse 32). I get people confusing that ALL the time in Sunday School.

matejoh said...

I don't mean to overly-simplify it, but a time-out seems like forever to a child when they're being punshed. Personally, I've always thought of hell as a state of mind and not a physical place. So, having some flexibilty with the terms of our punishments, if required, seems like an action that would be taken by an understanding God. To use another analogy, if life is a test and we don't make a good grade, is that all there is? Is the purpose of education to take a test and just receive a grade on a one-time offer? Of course not. The scriptures quoted above read like a deep learning experience and that the pain felt is pain from rapid growth in understanding. That's my take on the pains of hell; it lasts as long as it takes for someone to come to an understanding of the truth.

Anonymous said...

Jeff, I think it's unfortunate that after answering this question so thoroughly, you don't want to answer any of my other questions. But I still appreciate the time you took to answer this one. I suppose there really is no good answer to my question about sealings. I see that you truly believe in your religion, and I respect that. I also like your sense of humor. I wish you the best.